Flora & Fauna
A real ocean of green paradise on earth. A rugged mountains belt its panoramic landscape is beyond descriptions. It is a land of wonder for tourist and living treasure for scientists i.e. Ornithologists, Zoologists, Botanists, Ecologists. Indeed, a virgin natural forest with unique natural lakes in the midst of wilderness.
The sanctuary lies roughly between 93o 30‘ and 95o 45′ east longitudes and 28o 5′ and 28o 15′ north latitude and covers an area of 281.5 sq. km. The altitude varies from 400m to 3568m from Mean Sea Level (MSL).
Condusive climate, edaphic factors and the geographical location of the district give rise to luxurious vegetation rich in diversity. Some of the important tree species are Hollock(Terminalia, myriocarpa), Khokan(Duabanga grandiflora), Mekai, Simul, Titachampa(Michalia Champaca) and Gamari(Gmelina arborea). The bamboo of the variety Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii is found in abundance. Different varieties of canes are commonly found in the area.
The medicinal plants Coptis Teeta(Mishmi Teeta) is an endemic species and Taxus baccata are available here. The area is also rich in orchid varieties. Like the flora, the fauna of this area is equally rich and varied. It includes some rare species of wild animals and birds.
The common variety of wild life are Tiger, Black Panther, Leopard, Bear, Elephant, Wild Pig, Langur, White browed gibbon, Musk Deer, Mishmi Takin. Among the birds the common varieties are Hornbills, Babblers, Bulbul, Warblers, Flycatchers, Pigeons etc. The area is also abode of different species of snakes, reptiles and insects and last but no the least different varieties of blood sucking leeches.
The forest type varies with altitudes. This Sanctuary consists of four forest types as stated below:
Tropical Evergreen Forests (Up to 900m):
The main associate tree species are:-
Terminalia Myriocarpa, Terminalia Bellirica, Terminalia Chebula, Altingia Excelsa, Jalauma Phellocarpa, Abizzia Lucida, Abizzia Procera, Abizzia Arunachalensis, Abizzia Sherriffi, Acacia Caesia, Canarium Strictum, Largerstromia Flostregina, Duabanga Grandiflora, Michelai Champaca, Messua Ferra, Dillenia Indica, Castanopsis Indica, Bischfia Javanica, Magnolia species, Ailanthus Grandis, Kedia Calycina, Bombax Ceiba, Schima Wallichri, Ficus Altissima, etc.
Shrubs & Herbs:-
Clerodendrum Colebroo-Kiarum, Clerodendrum Viscosum, Maesa Indica, Costus species, Tephrosia Candida, Solanum Khaslanum, etc.
Bamboo & Canes:
Dendrocalamus Giganteus, Dendrocalamus Hamitonii, Phyllostchya Bamusoides, Bambussa Pallida, Pseudotaehiyum Polymer etc.
Sub-Tropical & Temperate Forests (Above 900m to 1800m):
The common associate tree species are:-
Ainusnepalensis, Populus Amblei, Castanopsis Indica, Castanopsis Spicate, Quercus Griffithi, Quercus Amellosa, Bbetula Ainnides, Albizia Mollis, Michelia Species, Magnolia Species etc.
Shrubs & Herbs:-
Zantheoxylum Acanthopo Pynfomis, Panax species, Rnmex Hastatus, Swer Tia spcies, etc.
Phyllostachys Bamboo Soides, Arundinaria species, Arundinaria Malling, Cephalo Stachyum species, etc.
Temperate Broad Leave Forest (1800M to 2800m):
The main associations found in this forest types are :- Quercus Griffithii, Betula Alnoides, Cophis Teeta(Medicinal plant), R. Anthropogon etc.
Temperate Conifer Forest (2800m to 3500m):
The main associations found in this forest types are :- Tsuga Abies, Pinus Roxburgii, Texas Baccata, Texas Abies, Lanx Griffithiane Forests, Picea Abies Forest and gregarious bamboo forests.
The richness and diversity of the flora composition provides rich varieties of faunal species. The density of vegetation provides food and shelter to the various insects, reptiles, birds and mammals….all together forming a balanced environment and abode of aesthetic beauty. The common species of the mammals, birds and insects which were recorded in the sanctuary are stated below:-
- Tiger· (Panthera Tigris)
- Leopard (Panthera Pardus)
- Clouded Leopard (Neofelis Leopard)
- Leopard Cat (Felis Bengalensis)
- Jungle Cat (Felis Chaus)
- Fishing Cat (Felis Viverrina)
- Spotted Linsang (Prionodon Pardicolor)
- Common Mongoose (Harpestes Edwards)
- Wild Dog (Cuon Alpinus)
- Jackel (Canis Alpinus)
- Yellow bellied Weasel (Mustela Kathiah)
- Burmes Ferret Badger (Melogale Personata)
- Malay Treeshrew (Tupaia Glis)
- Common Otter (Lutra Lutra)
- Indian Porcupine (HystrixIindica)
- Himalayan Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)
- Assamese Macaque (Macaca Assamensis)
- Stumptail Macaque (Macaca Speciosa)
- Slow Loris (Nycticebus Coucang)
- Hoolock (Hylobates Hoolock)
- India Elephant (Elephas Maximus)
- Gaur (Bos Gaurus)
- Sambar (Cervus Unicolor)
- Barking Deer (Mutiacus Muntjak)
And the high mountains mammals of following species are recorded:
- Red Pand (Allurus Fulgeris)
- Musk Deer (Moschus Moschi Ferus)
- Mishmi Takin (Budorcas Taxicolor)
- Serow (Capricornis Sumatraensis)
- Goral (Nmeorhaedus Goral)
- Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia)
The fauna is also very rich and varieties of birds species are found in this sanctuary. Uptill now 200 species of birds have been identified. Some of the birds from this check list are stated below:-
- Gosander (Mergus Merganser)
- Large Cormorant (Phalacrocrorax Carbo)
- Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos)
- Godwall (Anas Strepera)
- Cotton Teal (Nettas Coromandelianus)
- Three Toed Forest Kingfisher (Cetx Erithacus)
- Himalayan Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle Lugubris)
- Blue Throated Barbet (Megalaima Asiatica)
- Temmink’s Tragopen (Trogopan Temminckii)
- Monal Pheasant (Loohophorus Impejanus)
- Japanese Awfinch (Coccophraustes Personatus)
- Whitnaped Yuhina (Yuhina Bakeri)
- Silvereared Mesia (Leiothrix Argentauris)
- Large Niltava (Muscicapa Grandis)
- White Throated Red Start (Phoenicurus Schisticeps)
- Spotted Short Tailed Wrenbabbler (Spelaeornis Formosus)
- Alpine Choug (Pyrrihocorax Graculus)
- White Spotted Laughing Thrust (Garrulax Ocellatus)
- Blue Wing Laughing Thrust (Garrulax Squamatus)
- Red Headed Laughing Thrust (Garrulax Erythrocephalus)
- Great Pied Hornbill (Bucerosa Bicornis)
- Tibeten Greybacked Shrike (Lanius Tephronotus)
- Green Magpie (Cissa Chinensis)
- Large Racket-tailed Drongo (Dicrurus Hottentotutus)
- Wren (Troglodytes Troglodytes)
- Black Napped Oriole (Oriolus Chinensis)
- Longtailed Broadbill (Psarisomus Dalhousiae)
- Blue Napped Pitta (Pittanipalenisis) etc.
Varieties of snake species, both poisonous and non-poisonous are found in this sanctuary. Among the poisonous snakes the following deserve special mention:
- Black Krait (Bungarus Niger )
- Banded Kraft (Bungarus Bungarus)
- Cobra Naja Naja (Monocellants & Bicellente)
- King Cobra (Naja Bennah)
- Pit Viper (Trumeresurus Monticols)
Among the non-poisonous snakes are the following:
- Python (Python Nolurus)
- Reticulate Python (Python Reticulate)
- The Whip Snake
- Common Indian Black Snake
- Checkeved Keel Back
- Himalayan Cat Snake
- Green Whip Snake
- Stripedracer (Elephe Tainiura)
The rivers / streams contain various types fish species. Some of the identified fishes are listed below:
- Garra Annandalei
- Garra Gotyla Gotyla
- Garra Lamta
- Aborichthys Elongates
- Botia Dayi
- Cyprinion Semiplotum etc.
The sanctuary is also rich in butterfly species. About 232 species of butterfly were identified. The common butterflies are stated below:
- Common Peacock (Princeps Polctorganesa)
- Paris Peacock (Princeps Paris Paris )
- Yellow Helen (Princeps Nephelus Chaon)
- Red Helen (Princeps Helenus Helenus)
- Glassy Bluebottle (Graphium Cloanthus)
- Great Zebra (Princeps Xenocles Phrontis)
- Chocolate Albatross (Appias Lyncidaelanora)